What are the 8 wastes of lean manufacturing?
The reduction of waste is the main idea of lean manufacturing. But what exactly is waste? Waste can take many forms, but at the core it is anything that does not add value from the perspective of a customer. The following article summarises the 8 wastes of lean manufacturing and provides actionable insights about how to eliminate waste with wearable devices.
8 wastes of lean manufacturing
An often used acronym for the 8 wastes of lean manufacturing is DOWNTIME which stands for: Defects, Overproduction, Waiting, Not utilising talent, Transportation, Inventory excess, Motion waste, Excess processing
Defects are mistakes which need additional resources, time and money to remedy the situation. In manufacturing operations, defects may include broken components that need to be rebuilt. Complete elimination of all defects is not possible, but defects can be limited by applying stricter quality control and documentation procedures such as standard work instructions or checklists.
Root causes for defects usually include:
- The lack of sufficient quality control processes
- Missing repair and documentation standards
- Undocumented design changes
- Misunderstood customer requirements
Overproduction typically occurs when workers continue to produce blindly, even if the output cannot be processed because receivers are not ready or do not need the output at the given point of time. The remedy to overproduction is better planning and work coordination. The implementation of standard procedures for each process is needed. Bottlenecks in the process sequence should be removed and measures to improve the transparency of the entire production process should be implemented. Overproduction ties up a considerable amount of working capital and must not be accepted.
Root causes for overproduction usually include:
- Just-in-case production
- Weak planning
- Long-setup and machine changeover times
Waiting times happen whenever the work has to be interrupted. Reasons include but are not limited to missing materials, waiting for approval to proceed work or because of machine downtimes. Waiting times occur if workers have to wait until a bottleneck is removed. Providing better tools for communication is a means to remedy waiting times. This allows better coordination and more flexible operational processes, e.g. by allowing ad-hoc requests such as ad-hoc material replenishment or approval requests.
Root causes for waiting times can be:
- Unplanned machine downtime
- Long set-up and machine changeover times
- Inadequate staffing
- Absence from work
- Poor planning and process documentation
- Lack of communication tools
#4 Not-Utilising Talent
Although this waste is not one of the original seven wastes of the Toyota Production System, not-utilising talent is increasingly being seen as waste today. Insufficiently used talents, abilities and knowledge of people has tremendous impact on any organisation. For manufacturing operations, great benefits can be reaped by including skilled workers and their improvements ideas at any level.
Not-utilizing talents directly impacts employee motivation and engagement. This has direct impact on productivity. Solutions for empowering the employees include to avoid micro-management, improve training and implement processes and tools for direct employee feedback, e.g. by collecting ideas for continuous improvement measures.
Not-utilizing talent typically occurs with:
- Assign employees to wrong tasks
- Tedious administrative work
- Lack of communication and communication tools
- Poor management
- Inadequate training
- Missing teamwork
Transportation waste arises when you move things from A to B. Transportation increases costs, needs time and may result in product damage. Transport waste can easily be reduced by reorganizing the physical layouts and process simplification. The goal should be a less frequent handling of products with the shortest possible distances between process steps.
Transportion waste is based on the following root causes:
- Poor factory layout
- Poor process planning with unnecessary steps
- Wrongly aligned process flow
- Insufficient communication tools
#6 Inventory Excess
Inventory excess waste happens when the supply exceeds the real customer demand.
Root causes include:
- Buffer exceeds need
- Lack of proper monitoring systems
- Production speed not aligned to demand
- Suppliers are not reliable
- Long set-up times
#7 Motion Waste
Motion waste results from movement that does not add value to the goods produced. The rearrangement of workstation layouts to reduce the distances has a huge impact on the reduction of motion waste. In addition, proper procedures for the sharing of tools and machines should be implemented. The usage of mobile devices for data collection and tasks fulfillment also decreases motion waste.
Root causes for motion waste include:
- Poor factory and production line layout
- Sharing of machines and tools
- Processes are not aligned and result in motion overhead
- Work standards are not in place
#8 Exceed Processing
Excess processing happens when work processes are poorly designed or not documented properly. This results in inefficiencies such as multiple versions of the same task, e.g. several signatures, polishing components that do not require it, entering duplicated data or processing more goods than required. To overcome overprocessing, standardizing processes is key. This should include the reduction of unneeded process steps such as unnecessary documentation, approvals and meetings.
Root causes include:
- Poorly designed processes
- Lack of standards
- Lack of communication and proper communication tools
- Human error
How to eliminate waste efficiently?
The systematic elimination of the 8 wastes of lean results in increased productivity, faster processes, higher quality and lower costs. At the same time, employee engagement will rise. Typical Lean manufacturing approaches to reduce the 8 wastes of lean include Kanban, SMED, Kaizen, 5S, Standard Work etc.
In addition, the use of digital technologies such as wearable devices boosts the setup of procedures to reduce waste. The elimination of the 8 wastes of lean will be much easier when data about the entire production process is available and employees can engage with production data in real-time.
Using an industrial smartwatch allows exactly this: employees can collect data directly from the field e.g. by using app-based workflows. Access to kanban dashboards and the ability to alert operators on the wrist in real-time eases employee engagement. A solution such as the WORKERBASE industrial smartwatch is a lightweight wearable device. It allow the implementation of lean manufacturing tools for waste elimination in short time.
How to start?
We propose a very pragmatic approach to come up with countermeasures to reduce the 8 wastes of lean. First step is to brainstorm a list of potential countermeasures, followed by the prioritisation and selection of measures to be implemented. We recommend to use digital tools to implement the measures efficiently.
Step 1: List of potential countermeasures
The following is a non-comprehensive list of potential countermeasures to eliminate waste. We recommend to use this as a starting point and add appropriate measures as needed.
Standard work: Implement standard work instructions
Poka-Yoke: Design processes so they are less likely to produce defects
Jidoka: Foster the detection of abnormalities and immediate correction
Kanban: Implement a kanban system to organise your production process
Takt time: Match the rate of manufacturing to the rate of customer demand
SMED: Reduce setup times to allow the efficient production of smaller batches
Continuous flow: Design a continuous flow system and minimise buffers between steps in production
Standard work: Implement standard work instructions for a consistent work sequence
4. Not-Utilising Talent
Standard work: Invite employees to provide feedback on standard-work instructions
Value stream mapping: Create a sequential flow from raw materials to finished goods
Continuous flow: Ensure work-in-process (WIP) will not be placed into inventory
Just-in-time delivery: deliver materials only when they are needed
Continuous flow: Reduce or eliminate buffers, e.g. by ad-hoc replenishment orders
5S: Ensure that work stations are well organised
Value stream mapping: Evaluate alternatives for tools and equipment to reduce motion, e.g. alternate arrangements, wearable devices
8. Exceed processing
Standard work: Document and work through standard-work instructions
Kaizen: Evaluate potential process changes to simplify manufacturing operations
Step 2: Prioritization and selection of measures
It is crucial to not tackle all challenges at once. Instead, we recommend to start with one specific waste. Once the first measures have been implemented successfully, you can proceed to add further measures. To get the buy-in from all relevant people, please involve topic owners and key experts from early on. The team members for an improvement project should include people from the targeted improvement area, along with other stakeholders. This may include internal customers of the results.
Step 3: Implementation of measures
We recommend to use digital tools to implement selected measures. A platform such as the WORKERBASE system allows to come up with customised apps very quickly. Apps to reduce waste can be configured in a web browser by combining different screen types. Here are a few examples how to eliminate waste by using a smartwatch.
The Defect reporting app allows the reporting of abnormalities directly from the smartwatch. Operators are able to report an incident, together with photo or video documentation and can request support from co-workers e.g. service technicians. Service technicians would then be notified on their smartwatch and can work on the immediate correction of the defect.
The digital Kanban board of the WORKERBASE system helps to gain transparency about production status. This eases the planning processes and allows to implement a pull system. All performed tasks from the smartwatch are directly sent to the Kanban board and are marked as open, in progress, done or suspended. For the implementation of a pull system, the Kanban pull system app can be customised e.g. by marking cards as requested, in progress and done. The smartwatch would then allow to scan items to send material requests and to optimise inventory levels.
The Support call app provides functions for requesting help, e.g. sending requests for approval, technical support, medial help etc. Workers can send support requests to individual co-workers or to an entire group of people who then would be notified on their smartwatch. With the Support call app, waiting times can be reduced and work can be organised much more flexible.
4. Not-Utilising Talent
The WORKERBASE system allows to create Standard work instruction from a web browser. The individual instructions will then presented as a screen-by-screen workflow on the smartwatch. With this, workers get guidance on the work sequence. In addition, workers can provide feedback on the sequence of a work instruction. All WORKERBASE apps can be modified to fit to the changing requirements of individual workers and to changing processes.
5. / 6. Transport & Inventory
The Replenishment app allows to order re-supply in a very flexible way: workers can scan barcodes and order missing materials or components. The orders will then directly send to the respective process owners e.g. forklift driver, warehouse worker, picker etc. By the use of smartwatches, you can implement just-in-time delivery processes where materials are only delivered when they are needed.
As the smartwatch is a body-worn device which is always with the worker, it can be used to reduce motion waste. For example, assembly workers can use the barcode scanner of the smartwatch to perform on-production testing. Inspection routines like comparing barcodes for different components can be done on-the-fly at any place without the need to move to specific locations to pick up a handheld barcode scanner.
8. Exceed processing
By using a standard work app with step-by-step instructions, worker are guided through the process and always know what and how to perform a certain task. With the WORKERBASE app builder, app can be configured in minutes to fit to individual requirements. The video shows a typical app creation process with the setup of a smartwatch workflow.
Implementing countermeasures to reduce the 8 wastes of lean is a lot of work. But please keep in mind that the results can be significant and long lasting. In addition to eliminating waste, a well-executed approach with a digital platform results in experienced employees who are able to continuously implement improvement measures. Please contact us to learn more about how to use a smartwatch to eliminate the 8 wastes of lean.